InVEST Models

Women in a field in Tanzaia

Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) is a free and open-source software suite to inform and improve natural resource management and investment decisions. InVEST quantifies, maps, and values the goods and services from nature that contribute to sustaining and fulfilling human life.

InVEST's modular toolset enables users to quantify, visualize and compare the delivery of key ecosystem services under different scenarios of land, water, and marine uses. Outputs describe natural resources in terms of their biophysical supply, the service they provide humans, or their projected socioeconomic value. These outputs provide a framework for governments, corporations, development banks, conservation organizations and other decision makers to evaluate the impacts of their decisions on the environment and on human well-being.


InVEST currently includes 17 models that analyze different aspects of marine and terrestrial environments:

Blue Carbon
Quantifies and values carbon storage and sequestration in coastal ecosystems

Quantifies and values carbon storage and sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems

Coastal Protection
Quantifies and values the benefits of nearshore habitats for coastal protection

Coastal Vulnerability
Assesses the relative risk to coastal areas from storms

Crop Pollination
Quantifies and values the contribution of wild pollinators to agricultural production

Habitat Quality
Characterizes habitat quality and quantifies relative habitat loss

Habitat Risk Assessment
Evaluates the risk to marine or terrestrial habitats from anthropogenic factors

Managed Timber Production
Values timber harvest

Marine Fish Aquaculture
Estimates the harvest weight and value of farmed salmon

Marine Water Quality
Models concentration of pollutants at sea

Offshore Wind Energy
Measures the electricity generation potential of wind over ocean and large lake surfaces

Maps recreational use across a landscape and predicts future recreational use under alternative scenarios.

Reservoir Hydropower Production (Water Yield)
Quantifies water yield in a catchment and the amount and value of hydropower produced by a reservoir

Scenic Quality
Maps the visibility of features across a landscape or seascape

Sediment Retention
Quantifies soil loss and retention and values the avoided cost of water treatment or dredging

Water Purification
Quantifies nutrient retention, and values the avoided cost of water treatment

Wave Energy
Models and values harvested energy from wave power facilities

Helper Tools

InVEST currently includes 2 supporting tools:

Overlap Analysis
Identifies areas of potential conflict between various human uses

Scenario Generator
Combines stakeholder input of transition likelihood with physical factors to generate simple maps that depict future land cover

Learn More

The InVEST User's Guide presents in-depth information on how to use InVEST, the theory behind the models, common usage, required data inputs, limitations of the models, and a variety of other useful information.

InVEST training courses are offered several times a year in various locations around the world. Sign up for our newsletter to receive the latest information on our trainings, or see our schedule of upcoming trainings to decide which works best for you.

If you can't make it to a training, InVEST training videos presented by staff at the Natural Capital Project are the perfect way to get started using the models on your own.